The automotive battery, alsoknown as a lead-acid storage battery, is an electrochemical device that produces voltageand delivers current. In an automotive battery we can reverse the electrochemical action,thereby recharging the battery, which will then give us many years of service. The purposeof the battery is to supply current to the starter motor, provide current to the ignitionsystem while cranking, to supply additional current when the demand is higher than thealternator can supply and to act as an electrical reservoir.
The automotive battery requires special handling. The electrolyte (water) inside thebattery is a mixture of sulfuric acid and water. Sulfuric acid is very corrosive; if itgets on your skin it should be flushed with water immediately; if it gets in your eyes, you should immediately flush them thoroughly with water and see a doctor right away. In this situation, time is critical. If you work with batteries often, you should have a mild solution of baking soda and water on hand and flush with that. The baking soda will neutralize the acid and minimize the damage. Remember: it is more important to flush immediately. Do not take the time to make up a solution first.
Sulfuric acid will eat through clothing, so it isadvisable to wear old clothing when handling batteries. It is also advisable to weargoggles and gloves while servicing the battery. When charging, the battery will emithydrogen gas; it is therefore extremely important to keep flames and sparks away from thebattery.
Because batteries emit hydrogen gas while charging, the battery case cannot becompletely sealed. Years ago there was a vent cap for each cell and we had to replenishthe cells when the electrolyte evaporated. Today's batteries (maintenance free) have smallvents on the side of the battery; the gases emitted have to go through baffles to escape.During this process the liquid condenses and drops back to the bottom of the battery.There's no need to replenish or add water to this type of battery.
Today's batteries are rated in cold cranking amps. This represents the current that thebattery can produce for 30 seconds at 0 degrees before the battery voltage drops below 7.2volts. An average battery today will have a CCA (Cold Cranking Amps) of 500. With the manydifferent makes and models of cars available today, batteries will come in many differentsizes, but all sizes come in many CCAs. Make sure you get a battery strong enough tooperate properly in your car. The length of the warranty is not indicative of the strengthof the battery.
Battery cables are large diameter, multistranded wire which carry the high current(250+ amps) necessary to operate the starter motor. Some battery cables will have asmaller wire, soldered to the terminal, which is used to either operate a smaller deviceor to provide an additional ground. When the smaller cable burns it indicates a highresistance in the heavy cable.
Even maintenance free batteries need periodic inspection and cleaning to insure theystay in good working order. Inspect the battery to see that it is clean and that it isheld securely in its carrier. Some corrosion naturally collects around the battery.Electrolyte condensation contains corrosive sulfuric acid, which eats away the metal ofbattery terminals, cable ends and battery holddown parts. To clean away the corrosion, usea mixture of baking soda and water, and wash all the metal parts around the battery, beingcareful not to allow any of the mixture to get into the battery (batteries with top cellcaps and vents). Rinse with water. Remove the battery cables from the battery (negativecable first), wire brush the inside of the cable end and the battery post. Reinstall thecables (negative end last). Coat all exposed metal parts( paint or grease can be used) sothat the sulfuric acid cannot get on the metal.
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